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Monday, November 5, 2012


Halley’s Comet
A memorandum, as it goes down the chain of command in an educational institution.
SUBJECT               :  Operation Halley’s Comet
FROM                   :  Chairman of the Board of Trustees
TO                          :  The President

Tomorrow evening at approximately eight (8) p.m., Halley’s Comet will be visible in this area, an event which occurs only once every seventy five (75) years.  Have the students fall out in the football fields in uniforms and I will explain this rare phenomenon to them.  In case of rain, we will not be able to see anything, so assemble the students in the auditorium and I will show them film of it.


FROM   :  The President
TO          :  Vice President for Academic Affairs

By order of the Chairman of the Board, tomorrow, at eight in the evening, Halley’s Comet will appear above the football field, if it rains, fall the students out in uniforms.  Then lead them to the auditorium where the rare phenomenon will take place, something which occurs only once every seventy five years.

FROM   :  Vice President for Academic Affairs
TO          :  College Dean

By order of the Chairman of the Board, in uniform, at eight o’clock in the evening tomorrow, the phenomenal Halley’s Comet will appear in the auditorium.  In case of rain, in the football field, the Chairman of the Board will give another order, something which occurs once every seventy five years.

FROM   :  Dean of College
TO          :  Academic Coordinators

Tomorrow at eight o’clock in the evening, the Chairman of the Board will appear in the auditorium with Halley’s Comet, something which happens every five years.  If it rains, the Chairman of the Board will order the COMET into the football area in uniform.

FROM   :  Academic Coordinators
TO          :  Department Heads

When it rains tomorrow at eight in the evening, the phenomenal, seventy-five year old Chairman Halley, accompanied by the President will drive his Comet thru the football field area theater in uniform.


Communicating with others is at the heart of every activity and of the every process of living.  It is the thread that lines the actions of the individual or organization to its desired objectives.  It is also the way humans have of sharing feelings, thoughts, wants and needs.  Communication is a process which enables us to share ideas with others.  It also examines the barriers that interfere with effective communications.


-Is the transfer of information from one person to another.  It is a way of transmitting ideas, facts, thoughts, feelings and values.

- Is what the receiver understands, not what the sender says.



l  Downward
l  Upward
l  Lateral / Across

l  Visioning and motivational
l  Job instructions
l  Job rationale
l  Policies, procedures and practices
l  Feedback
l  Participatory-planning and decision-making
l  Feedback on understanding of downward communication
l  Encourages submission of valuable ideas/suggestions for improvements
l  Unsolved work-related and issues and problems
l  Tasks coordination
l  Problem solving
l  Information sharing
l  Conflict resolution
l  Grapevine is _________.
l  Grapevine is accurate (80 to 90 percent for noncontroversial information)
l  Grapevine carries much information
l  Grapevine provides management with feedback about employee views/opinions
l  Grapevine serves as the network over much rumor travels
l  Grapevine travels by cluster

When Communicating with Superiors:
l  To provide respond to their requests
l  To keep them informed of your progress
l  To elicit their help in solving problems
l  To sell them on your ideas and suggestions for improvements
l  To seek clarification of their orders and instructions
When Communicating with Peers:
l  To share for improvement
l  To coordinate your activities with theirs
l  To provide them with assistance
l  To get to know them as individuals
When Communicating with Subordinates:
l  To issue orders and instructions
l  To persuade and sell them on changes
l  To appraise their performances
l  To compliment, reward and discipline
l  To clarify your intentions, orders and instructions
l  To get to know them as individuals


1. Be sure of the purpose of communicating.  Two basic questions to answer:  Is communication necessary?  What are the goals of communicating?
2. Know the receiver.  Sender must look at intended audience to construct the message properly and to determine who the specific receiver should be.
3. Construct the message with the receiver in mind.  The sender should try to put the message into words what the audience will understand, and choose only those words.


4. Select proper medium.  The sender needs to elect the most appropriate medium.  The choice of a medium to carry the message depends on the content of the message, who the receiver will be, the receiver’s location and environment at the time of transmission, and the time chosen to transmit the message.

Tips in Preparing Effective Written Communication
Points to remember in preparing written communication:
1.  Determine the purpose.  Have clearly in mind the purpose of your communication, knowing the purpose will help organize your thought.
2.  Think about the reader.  Tailor what you say, and the way in which you express it so that the message is presented in an appropriate way.
    If you say Yes to a request or offering something or giving pleasant news, tell your reader right away.
      Example:  You will be glad to know that your request was approved.

Points to remember in preparing written communication:
 3. Be clear and concise.  Use the best words and expressions to cover your thoughts to the reader.
l  Use basic English words not slang.
l  Use the specific and concrete terms rather than vague and misleading expressions.  If a technical term makes your writing clearer or more concise, use it.  However, you may avoid using a technical term when a simpler word will do just as will, or when the term’s meaning may not be clear to your reader.

l  Keep paragraphs and sentences short.  Sentences and paragraphs that express one idea are easier to understand.  Avoid wordy phrase such as:
        i regret to inform
        would appreciate it
        will acknowledge
        please be advised
        a great deal of
        with references to
        beg to inform you
l  Avoid redundancy
        an honor and a privilege
        combine into one
        first priority
l  Minimize the use of cliches such as:
        bread- and -butter issue
        tried and true
        bottom line
4.  Have a logical progression of ideas.
                A well-planned communication must have the following parts:
        Introduction - to attract the attention and interest of the reader
        Body - the main content -- the “meat”
        Closing - should be  the  natural  and logical result of what you have said

5.  You should strive for accuracy in mechanical and technical details especially in references, statements, dates.  Include only the essential facts as dates and figures, names and other data and make sure that they are correct.  Incorrect, insufficient and irrelevant information leave the reader in doubt and will require additional communication.
6.  Whenever possible, use the active voice.  Your writing style will be more direct, will add strength to your message as well as contribute to a conversational tone.

7. Adopt the right tone.  Be specific without sounding threatening.  Use positive rather than negative approach.
        Whenever possible, soften your NO by offering an alternative action
                Ex.  Although we can’t … we can…
        Point out a mistake tactfully
                                NOT THIS BUT THIS
                You failed to send  We need your in your report report to …

Use the passive voice to point out an error.
                                NOT THIS BUT THIS
                 “You overlooked.” Something was  overlooked.
        Avoid scolding or blaming.
8. Check for proper form, capitalization, spelling, word division, grammar and punctuation.
9. Check and polish your rough draft before you finalize your written communication.


1.  DepED Orders
l  issued as needed and are confined to announcement of policies or of matters of general and reasonably permanent in nature.  The contents of the Orders remain in effect until rescinded or amended
2.  DepED Memoranda
l  issued when the instructions/informa-tion to be conveyed/disseminated are of a temporary nature.  Examples are announcements of conferences, seminars, examinations, surveys, contests, celebrations, etc.
3.  DepED Bulletin
l  usually deal with matters which are more informational or instructional than regulative in nature
4.  Unnumbered Memoranda
l  similar DepED Memoranda but limited in scope or concern only one or a few regions or offices
5.  Office Orders
l  similar to DepED Orders but contain policies/instructions confined only to the DECS Central Office personnel
6.  Office Memorandum
l  similar to DepED Memorandums but concern only to the Central Office personnel
-- The first three issuances mentioned are chronologically numbered by the Materials Production and Publication Division.  The other are not numbered.


The memo format is suitable for most in-house instructional messages, whereas the letter format is more suitable for outside contact.  Any instruction -- oral or written -- must be very clear and specific to avoid misunderstandings.

Parts of a Memo

Principal  Parts
A.  Heading - guide words preceding the body.  Memo stationary may have headings printed at the top of the page beneath the letterhead address:  Date, To, From, Subject.  The writer then fills in the appropriate information after each guide word.  Major words in the subject line are capitalized.
  B. Body -- the message of the memo.  Prepare it like the body of a letter, with paragraphs that may not be indented.  Since memo has no salutation, the first paragraph begins two or more lines below the row of guide words.
C. Notations -- miscellaneous references such as the inclosure notation.  Place notations in the same position as those in a traditional letter.


l  memoranda
l  orders
l  letters
l  endorsements
l  bulletins
l  circulars
l  reports
·         grapevine
·         electronic telecommunications (telephone, radio, television, fax,    e-mail, internet, pager)

Sample DepED Order